The system of “lists” that is the core of the Cmacc data model was observed by @paulcapestany to look like a “graph.”  Graphs don’t mean what I thought, and a bit of investigation shows that Paul is right.  More than right. 

Graphs are a field of mathematics developed by Euler in the 18th Century.  The math has achieve new prominence as organizations try to understand and manage their many relationships, internal and external.  Some “graphs” include Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter.

I had long understood Cmacc to be triples.  This has such relationship to that.  Graphs systematize the bidirectional nature of chains of these relationships.  The network of relationships.  If X employs Y and Y’s hair is cut by Z, then Z is the haircutter of the employee of X.  And so on.

There is a fantastic amount of excellent work around graphs.  Cmacc is a way of rendering a document from a graph.  This means that the relationships expressed in graphs can be – more or less – legally self-executing.

For some work on/in graphs, see e.g.,, and @fredtrotter‘s docgraph.